Even though the Wii lacked the state of art graphics its competitors enjoyed, new types of control and innovative software gave this console new areas to brag about.
Here we will analyse every aspect of this console, from its already-familiar hardware to its overlooked security system, including its major flaws.
Quick Note: Some sections overlap part of the previous article about the Gamecube, so instead of repeating the information I will just put a link to the respective part of the article.
Let’s start by discussing one of the most iconic aspect of this console: The controllers.
The main device is no other than the Wii Remote (also called ‘Wiimote’), a gadget with a similar shape of a TV remote that contains many types of input controls:
The remote is powered by Broadcom’s BCM2042, a chip that includes all the circuitry necessary to become an independent Bluetooth device (CPU, RAM, ROM and, of course, a Bluetooth module). While the Wiimote is programmed to follow the ‘Bluetooth HID’ protocol to be identified as an input device, it doesn’t comply with the standard method of exchanging data (possibly to disallow being used on non-Wii systems).
Lastly, the Wiimote also includes 16 KB of EEPROM to store user data and a small speaker limited to low-quality samples.
Nintendo shipped this system with another controller to be used on the opposite hand, the Nunchuk, this one comes with its own accelerometer, joystick and two buttons. It’s connected to a 6-pin proprietary port on the Wiimote.
Other accessories were also built for this port, each one provided different types of input.
After the success of Gecko, IBM presumably grabbed this design and re-branded it as ‘750CL’ for other manufacturers to use. Then, when Nintendo requested a new CPU to use with their new console, still known as ‘Revolution’ (hence the RVL prefix on their stock motherboards, IBM and Nintendo agreed to use a 750CL clocked twice the speed as Gecko. This CPU is known as Broadway and runs at 729 MHz.
After having reviewed Gecko, I’m afraid there aren’t many changes found in the new CPU. However, this may be an advantage: GameCube developers were able to start developing their new Wii games right away thanks to all the experience they gained with Gecko. Moreover, the fact that Broadway runs twice the speed will allow them to push for more features and quality.
This one is an interesting bit, the old Gamecube memory layout has been re-arranged and enhanced with the following changes:
(For now) You can think of this console as a superset of the GameCube and as such, compatibility with the previous generation of games is naturally inherited. That being said, in order to make the Wii fully backwards compatible, the old set of external ports were brought to the Wii, these include the GameCube controller and memory card ports. There’s a new constraint however: The new memory map is incompatible with the old one, thus an emulated layer of compatibility was implemented in software (more details later on).
Regarding the GameCube accessories using the Serial/Hi-Speed socket, I’m afraid the Wii didn’t include these ports, so those accessories can’t be used here.
In later years, new revisions of the Wii saw these ports removed, unfortunately.
The new graphics package is called Hollywood, it still performs the same tasks that Flipper did back in the day but enjoying twice the clock speed (243 MHz).
This speed increase means that more geometry can be processed during the same unit of time, so Wii games will be able to feature more polygons and better-quality textures compared to GC games.
The 3D engine is still Flipper’s but now called GX. So instead of repeating the pipeline overview, I will mention some interesting design changes that games had to undergo:
Gamecube games lacked of a proper support for widescreen displays (that is, composing 16:9 frames, in contrast with the traditional 4:3). Certain games provided options to activate it, although this was still considered an exclusive feature.
Truth to be told, the video encoder outputs a fixed 640x480 pixel frame, so this ‘widescreen’ feature works by drawing a wider internal frame and letting the video encoder squash it in order to fit in a 640x480 map. Afterwards, your 16:9 TV would stretch the image so the final result could look more or less in the correct ratio. This technique is not new, it has been used in film projection and it’s referred as Anamorphic widescreen.
Back to the point, the Wii enabled this feature globally: It can be set in its system settings and requires every game to support it.
Changes in the input system meant new interactions available on Wii games. Since the WiiMote enabled users to point at the screen, some games like Super Mario Galaxy or The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess used this feature to allow the player to interact with the scenery.
At first glance, this would seem like a feature easy to implement, right? Well, it’s actually more complicated. You see, the CPU doesn’t know what elements the user is pointing at until the GPU renders the screen (remember that the CPU feeds the geometry but can’t predict what the user will see).
This feature was accomplished by checking depth (z-value) of objects overlapped by the cursor, this can only be done using the embedded frame-buffer stored inside GX, which both Broadway and GX have access to.
The speed up of Hollywood combined with revamped character designs brought some improvements to character modelling. It may not be significant compared to other generations but it’s still noticeable and appreciated.
This console includes a single proprietary connector that can provide multiple video signals at once (called A/V Multi Out), these include:
The Wii includes the same Macronix DSP found in the Gamecube, take a look at that link to get the detailed analysis.
Compared to the GC, the only major change is that, since ARAM is gone, either MEM1 or MEM2 can be used as audio buffer.
The I/O subsystem of this console is a truly game changer (if you’ll pardon the pun). The interfaces are now controlled by a single module that will take care of security too, I’m talking about Starlet.
Starlet is just an ARM926EJ-S CPU wired up to most of the internal components of this console. It resides inside Hollywood, runs at 243 MHz (same as Hollywood) and contains its own ROM and RAM too, so you can consider it an independent computer running alongside the main CPU.
The core is similar to the one used on the Nintendo DS, with the exception of including two ‘special’ additions:
These enhancements are a bit ‘weird’ since they are completely unused on the Wii. Nonetheless, Nintendo chose that core for Starlet. This reminds me of the first iPhone (2G), which also included an ARM CPU with Jazelle (wasted as well). If you wonder, Jazelle never took off, after some iterations it was discovered that Java Bytecode just ran better on software.
Moving on, this ‘I/O CPU’ is programmed to arbitrate access to different I/O from Broadway, and in doing so it also takes care of security (which decides to whether to allow access or not), this is specially crucial when it comes to granting access to NAND, which is where the main operating system and user data are stored.
The chip also inherits some technology from ARM, for instance, it implements the Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture or ‘AMBA’, a protocol that facilitates the communication between other devices using a set of specialised buses.
Having said that, Nintendo wired up the I/O in a way that makes use of two AMBA buses:
The Wii maintains full backwards compatibility with Gamecube games even though the original I/O system has changed drastically. This is because Starlet can be reprogrammed when a Gamecube game is executed to virtually re-map the I/O just like the original Gamecube would expect to find.
Additionally, the Real-Time Clock chip includes some spare ROM that stores bitmap fonts used by Gamecube games (the Latin and Japanese set) and SRAM to save IPL-related settings.
There are two operating systems residing in the Wii, one is executed on Broadway (main CPU) and the other one on Starlet (I/O CPU). Both reside inside those 512 MB of NAND memory and can be updated.
Starlet is already an interesting piece of hardware, but its software is even more intriguing. You see, not only this OS has complete access to every single corner of this console, but it’s also the first thing that runs when the power button is pressed.
Starlet runs a system unofficially referred as Input/Output Operating System or ‘IOS’ (please, do not confuse this with Apple’s iOS). IOS is a fully-featured operating system and it’s basically composed of:
With this in mind, the main job of IOS is to simplify the job of the main CPU by abstracting I/O and security. For that reason, programmers don’t have to worry about those matters. In order to accomplish this, Starlet reserves between 12 and 16 MB of GDDR3 RAM for its own tasks, the rest is used by Broadway and GX.
Broadway and Starlet communicate with each other using an Inter-Process Communication or ‘IPC’ protocol: In a nutshell, this works by both CPUs sharing two registers each. One CPU can write on the other’s registers (the written data can then be translated into a command or a value) and from there, the latter CPU can perform a function in response.
The update system of IOS is a bit tricky: Updated IOS versions are not installed on top of old ones, but in other slots instead. This is purely for compatibility reasons, since it allows older Wii software to keep working using the same IOS version which was developed for.
Nintendo often released IOS updates to improve hardware support (which was necessary when a new accessory was shipped). There’s only one exception when IOS updates actually replace older ones: When a specific version was discovered to have an exploitable vulnerability. This was only for security reasons.
When a Gamecube game is inserted, a different thing happens: Startlet boots a MIOS instead. This IOS just limits Starlet to emulate the original IPL.
This one is commonly known as the System Menu and effectively runs on the main PowerPC CPU (Broadway).
Compared to IOS, I wouldn’t consider this a ‘fully fledged’ OS, but more like a ‘program’ that allows the user to perform the following operations:
Just like IOS, Nintendo released multiple updates to this system too. Some fixed security holes, others added more features. A notable new feature was the ability to store channels in the SD card.
Any program running on Broadway (including the System Menu) relies on a specific IOS version to work. When game or a channel is booted, Starlet reboots itself using the declared version of IOS needed.
Nintendo refers to them as System updates, they contain the two OSs in the same package and use ordinal numbers for versioning, the last version known is
4.3E released in June 2010.
System update packages can be fetched from Nintendo’s Servers or game discs. Users can manually check for updates using the System Menu. Updates are forced if a game requires a specific version of IOS which is not installed and the disc happens to contain the required packages.
So far we have discussed two very different operating systems that reside in this console and run concurrently. This seems fairly simple, although both have to be carefully coordinated during the start of the console in order to work properly afterwards. That being said, the boot process of this console is as follows:
While new games did not always come with considerable graphical leaps, they did surprise users with the amount of features they could now offer. This was thanks to the number of services Nintendo deployed after this console launched, ranging from the new set of controls to a standardised online infrastructure (WiiConnect24) which enabled free online gaming.
Wii games are distributed using a proprietary disc format called Wii Optical Disc (I know, the name can’t get be more obvious). Anyhow, Panasonic designed this format based on the traditional DVD disc while adding non-standard features, like a burst cutting area on the inner section of the disc to prevent unauthorised reproductions. Matsushita took care of manufacturing the drive.
Space available ranges between 4.7 GB (if single-layer) or 8.54 GB (if double-layer). Wii discs often contain two partitions: The first one stores system updates and the other one, the actual game.
Some games like Super Smash Bros Brawl included more partitions to store multiple Virtual Console games, which could be executed inside the main game.
As part of the tradition, Nintendo supplied a development kit. This one was called NDEV and shaped like a big black brick, it came with enhanced I/O and two times the amount of MEM2 (128 MB in total) for debugging purposes.
The official software suite provided was named Revolution SDK and it included various tools, compilers, debuggers and frameworks to carry out development (mostly in C/C++). Nintendo distributed subsequent updates through a web portal called WarioWare.com (now offline) which only approved developers could access.
The official SDK relies on IOS calls to interact with the Wii hardware, this is why IOS updates are often correlated to SDK updates.
Considering all the software advancements of this console, it may surprise you that games still run on bare metal, which means that they have complete control of Broadway, but not of Starlet (hence, security mechanisms are implemented here). Needless to say, while games may enjoy this full-control, their behaviour is still subject to Nintendo’s approval in order to authorise their distribution.
Having said that, there’s one feature found in most, if not all, games and that is the HOME Menu, which allows returning to the System menu. Curiously enough, all games use the same design, but how did they all manage to have the same UI despite the fact the OS does not provide this feature?
The answer is simple, Nintendo included in their SDK some mandatory libraries that, lo and behold, draw that screen.
This is actually one of the 200 or so requirements games had to include, as ruled by the Wii Programming Guidelines document (found of the official SDK). Other requirements consisted in displaying the ‘Wii Strap reminder’ screen (which is just a bmp image) at the start of the game and how to interact with it.
Another new feature I would like to emphasise is the introduction of Mii, some sort of avatars that users could create using a dedicated channel called Mii Channel.
But the fun didn’t stop there, since games could also fetch these new-created Miis to personalise gameplay.
With the amount of features that this console offered, it’s no surprise that hackers would want to break the security measures to execute their own software. The Wii ended up having a fantastic Homebrew library, nonetheless.
Let’s start with the most common victim: The Disc drive.
Wii discs include the mentioned burst cutting area which is inaccessible by conventional readers. So, in the absence of this, the driver will just refuse to read the content.
Modchip developers discovered that the drive contained a debug interface called ‘Serial Writter’, although this port is locked until a secret key is entered. But once that key was discovered, modders were able to disable the copy protection and subsequently developed a modchip that automatised this process.
Matsushita released further revisions of this drive obfuscating the debug interface, however other flaws in the reader were discovered to re-enable it again.
It’s worth mentioning that the main use for modchips was piracy. The disc content is encrypted, so more research and tools were needed to run Wii homebrew. Gamecube homebrew, on the other hand, was already possible by reproducing previous exploits found on the Gamecube.
This is probably the most complex section of this console, yet its widespread research opened the door for lots of new developers and amazing programs.
The Wii designed its internal security using cryptographic ciphers (AES, RSA, ECC, SHA-1 and HMAC), let’s take a look at each group:
Titles contain another layer of security, RSA-2048. This is an asymmetric cipher algorithm (meaning that we need two keys to decrypt and encrypt the content, so it’s not enough by obtaining one key). In a nutshell, this allows Nintendo can encrypt tiles using their ‘private key’, while the Wii decrypts them using the ‘public key’.
Not only RSA allows to protect content, but it can also be used to check the integrity of encryption. You see, Nintendo uses multiple keys that are used to sign (encrypt) one on top of the other, forming a chain of encryption with the only purpose of verifying author of those keys (Nintendo) and avoiding alterations. In our case, Starlet only trusts content signed with key ‘x’, so if it has to decrypt a title with key ‘y’, it will only proceed if ‘y’ has been signed with key ‘x’. This is called a Chain of trust and it’s commonly used to protect most of our communications in other areas as well (for instance, HTTPS).
Starlet’s OTP stores public keys (meaning that, for our purposes, it can only decrypt and verify the signature of content). The chain of trust is made of the following keys:
As you can see, all of this allows Nintendo to be the sole distributor of content, which can be a good thing for game studios worried about piracy.
This system also contains its own ECC private and public keys, ECC (Elliptic Curve Cryptography) is another algorithm similar to RSA, in this case it’s only used to sign the content transferred through the SD card. This is what prevents content copied from one Wii to be used by another one.
The key is signed by yet another RSA public key called MS, which will allow Starlet to trust the ECC key.
The final key used by this console is the HMAC key, which uses another algorithm that combines SHA1 hashes and HMAC. During the boot process, Starlet checks that NAND hasn’t been altered by third-party hardware, to do that it computes the SHA1 hash of NAND and compares it against a saved hash to check whether they match. In addition to that, the saved hash is signed using the HMAC key to validate its authenticity.
As a final note, HMAC is stored in SEEPROM (outside Starlet), not in OTP.
After all this, it’s worth mentioning that when the system runs GameCube games, none of the mentioned encryption methods are used. Instead, Starlet will only check that the game can only access to certain memory locations. This is because 1/4 of GDDR3 RAM is used to simulate old ARAM).
Let’s start with AES keys, the algorithm may be hard to crack, but if the keys are extracted somehow (specially the common key), that layer of security would be instantly nullified. Then, the main challenge is how to extract them.
Well, a group of hackers called Team Twiizers found out that the lack of signatures on Gamecube mode may be a promising area of exploitation, and not only they discovered that 3/4 of that GDDR3 RAM was not cleared after running a GC program, but they also found out that by bridging some address points on the motherboard (using a pair of tweezers, nonetheless) they could switch the accessible banks of GDDR3 RAM, allowing to fetch hidden data from those restricted areas. Lo and behold, they found the AES keys stored in there.
Let’s not forget that this only allows to decrypt the ‘first layer’ of security, but in order to execute unsigned programs (Homebrew), RSA has to be cracked too. Unfortunately this can be computationally impossible… Unless there are flaws in its implementation. Well, Team Twizzers didn’t stop there so they started reversing how IOS was implemented, focusing in its signature verification functions.
RSA signature verification, without going into too much detail, works by comparing the hash of the computed RSA operation against the decrypted signature. After some fiddling, these guys discovered something hilarious: Nintendo implemented this function using
strcmp (C’s string compare).
For people unfamiliar with C,
strcmp is a function used for checking if two strings are equal. This method receives two strings and an integer (representing the number of characters to be compared) as parameters, then it starts comparing each character until the end of any string is reached. Strings in C are just a chain of characters terminated by a
\0 character, this means that
strcmp stops comparing once any string reaches
\0. Hence, by composing a Wii title in a way that its hash has zeroes at the beginning, Starlet RSA computations will input a
\0 string, making
strcmp always return
equal… Title is signed!
As if that wasn’t enough, this flaw was discovered on multiple IOS versions (even in boot1 and boot2!).
After this, there was only one thing left: Make the exploit permanent and implement a ‘user-friendly’ tool so it could run unsigned programs without hassle.
Unfortunately, these exploits required the use of extra hardware, so not every user could make use of it… Until Team Twizzers discovered yet another exploit: A game buffer-overflow.
I’m referring to the famous The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess (a game by Nintendo, by the way). TT discovered that the game save could be modified to overflow the number of characters used to name the player’s horse, so when it runs it would trigger a chain reaction can could potentially execute, let’s say, a program loader.
Since signatures were no longer an issue, this forged save file could be distributed on the net for other people to use. This effectively happened, opening the door for the Homebrew community.
While further reversing IOS, it was discovered that signatures are only performed during the installation of titles, not during execution.
Thus TT did it again, they carefully forged an installable channel that had the ability to load arbitrary programs from the SD card. If this channel was installed before Nintendo could take action, then the Wii could enjoy homebrew in a permanent state ( independently of Nintendo patching their signature flaws in the future, which they did).
Homebrew Channel was the result of this, it allowed any developer and hacker to write fully-fledged programs that could benefit from full control of this system.
For obvious reasons, Nintendo issued several system updates that fixed the signature exploits on multiple versions of IOS, they also took care of their flawed boot stages by also releasing new hardware revisions.
However, there were still fundamental flaws discovered in this system:
So, to wrap this up, what was left after this was just a cat-and-mouse game. Over the next months, different exploits were discovered with Nintendo subsequently trying to patch them one after another. This ‘game’ continued until the console reached end of life and no more updates were issued (we can assume the mouse won this one).
At the time of writing, the exploits previously mentioned in this article have already been patched. But I guess there’s no arguing about the impact they made afterwards, and who can forget the enormous amount of homebrew that was made available (somebody even created a homebrew ‘store’, which was faster and freer than the official one).
Happy new year 2020!
This one took me quite a while, I naively predicted that since most of the content was already done for the Gamecube, I would just have to write short paragraphs and add links here and there…
I think it turned out more informative than I expected, so I hope you found it a nice read.
Until next time!
This article is part of the Architecture of Consoles series. If you found it interesting please consider donating, your contribution will be used to get more tools and resources that will help to improve the quality of current articles and upcoming ones.
A list of desirable tools and latest acquisitions for this article are tracked in here:
## Interesting hardware to get (ordered by priority) - Nothing else, unless you got something in mind worth checking out ## Acquired tools used - Cheap Wii with accessories (£15)
Always nice to keep a record of changes.
## 2020-07-05 - Added mention of Jazelle and other unused bits of the ARM926EJ-S ## 2020-03-25 - Added Tails models ## 2020-01-06 - Spelling & Grammar corrections ## 2020-01-05 - More accurate references to official documents - Extended (small) audio section - Referenced Wiimote's speaker - Added footer - Public release ## 2020-01-04 - Second draft done - hola carlos ## 2019-12-31 - First draft done